Bookmark
Print
Facebook
Twitter
GDN FUNDED PAPERS
Trust and Cooperation among Urban Poor for Transition to Cleaner and Modern Cooking Fuel
Project : Medals for Research on Development 2013-14
Author : Bibhu P. Nayak and Veena Aggarwal
Date : 2014
Description : A significant percentage of households in India still use firewood, kerosene and other biomass as cooking fuel. A survey on household energy consumption patterns in Hyderabad revealed that monthly expenditure of urban poor on firewood or kerosene is as much as the price of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) cylinder. However, poorer households do not switch to the cleaner, more convenient and healthier LPG due to the high initial investments for an LPG connection. A pilot project was initiated to explore the viability of a community-based cooperative solution in pooling financial resources to meet these upfront investment cost and enable slum households to shift from kerosene and firewood to LPG. Two self-help groups were formed comprising 30 households each. The project enabled all 60 member households to obtain an LPG connection. This paper reiterates, through this pilot, that it is possible for communities hemselves to come up with innovative and sustainable solutions for achieving common development goals. Trust and reciprocity amongst the community is however a prerequisite for success. Contrary to general perception, this paper also shows trust and reciprocation, though moderate, does exist in urban setting. This social capital needs to be constructively harnessed through appropriate institutional design.
Taxation, foreign aid and political governance: figures to the facts of a celebrated literature
Project : Medals for Research on Development 2013-14
Author : Simplice A. Asongu
Date : 2014
Description : This paper puts figures to the facts of Eubank (2012), a recently celebrated paper in the Journal of Development Studies. We investigate the underpinning Somaliland-based hypothesis that foreign aid dilutes the positive role of taxation on political governance. The assessment is based on 53 African countries for the period 1996-2010. For more policy options, the dataset is disaggregated into fundamental characteristics of African development based on income-levels, legal origins, natural resources and landlockeness. While the Eubank hypothesis is invalid in Africa and low-income countries of the continent, we cannot conclude on its validity for other fundamental characteristics of development. Policy implications, caveats and future directions are discussed.
Restrictive Trade Policies as Hurdle to Pass for Africa: Evidence from the European Union’s Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures
Project : Medals for Research on Development 2013-14 -
Author : Olayinka Idowu Kareem
Date : 2014
Description : This study inquires the following; do the EU standard requirements enhance Africa’s exports? What are the standards required for agriculture exports in the EU? Is there any border rejection or refusal in this market for Africa’s agriculture exports? Thus, this study draws its objective, which is to investigate the impact of EU standard requirements (hurdles to pass before market access) on Africa’s exports.
Malnutrition and Mortality in Sub Saharan Africa and India
Project : Medals for Research on Development 2013-14
Author : Neetu Choudhary
Date : 2014
Description : This paper attempts a comparative analysis of the structure and dynamics of child mortality and malnutrition in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia - particularly India. As such the paper can be seen as a contribution to the contemporary debate investigating into relatively higher incidence of child malnutrition in India than in the countries of SSA, as against, significantly lower mortality ratio in India than in countries of SSA.
Land Reforms and Land Rights Change: An Ethnographic Case Study of Land Stressed Groups in the Nkoranza South Municipality of Ghana
Project : Medals for Research on Development 2013-14
Author : David Anaafo
Date : 2014
Description : Africa has had its fair share of land reforms and Ghana the focus of this paper has since 2004 been implementing a Land Administration Programme (LAP) that seeks “to stimulate economic development, reduce poverty and promote social stability by improving security of land tenure, simplifying the process for accessing land and making it fair, transparent and efficient, developing the land market and fostering prudent land management” (Ghana Government, 2003, p. 3). This paper explores the extent to which the implementation of the LAP in Ghana, combined with other perennial factors such as changing inheritance rights and population growth are altering the rights to land in Ghana, using the Nkoranza South Municipality as a case study.
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Water Sector in the Philippines
Project : Strengthening Institutions to Improve Public Expenditure Accountability
Author : by Columbus Maquito
Date : January 2014
Description : This paper presents a brief background of the development and cost‐effectiveness of two water districts (WDs) in the Philippines. Water districts are the main providers of safe drinking water outside the National Capital Region. The factors impacting the cost‐effectiveness of WDs are both external and internal. The external factors pertain to the political and economic laws and regulations for all WDs. The two WDs are located in the same province and have a common geography. For this reason, our analysis has not taken into account the external factors. The internal factors, which are included in our analysis, include corporate governance, financial management, and operations management. The analysis provides answers to the research questions posed in this paper.
Urbanization Processes and Urban Morphology in the Periphery of Capitalism: São Paulo, Jakarta, Hanoiand Belo Horizonte
Project : Urbanization
Author : Eliana Rosa de Queiroz Barbosa, Patrícia Capanema Alvares Fernandes, Nguyen Thanh Tú
Date : January 2013
Description : The research is a comparative study of the economic development, planning processes and the resulting urban morphology of four different cities: São Paulo, Jakarta, Hanoi and Belo Horizonte, aiming to disclosure the spatial outcomes of peripheral development. The cities are initially presented and compared two by two in each spatial scale, according to their resemblances in size and position, regarding economic dynamics. São Paulo and Jakarta were chosen due to their importance and economic relevance on their specific contexts, Latin America and South East Asia, respectively. Their size and characteristics – mega cities or city-regions – offers a possibility of comparison aiming to fnd similarities. Hanoi and Belo Horizonte have similar positions regarding their context – South Asia and Brazil, respectively. Both are administrative cities – Capital of Vietnam and Capital of Minas Gerais Province – with similar population sizes and currently under economic development and fast urbanization. Despite these similarities, the cities present distinct processes of growth and urbanization, which through this comparison should be highlighted.
Urban Externalities in the Small Developing Countries of Asia and Latin America: A Comparative Case Study Analysis of Squatter Settlements in Nepal (Kathmandu) and Ecuador (Quito)
Project : Urbanization
Author : Shiva Raj Adhikari, Damodar Regmi, Vanessa Pinto
Date : January 2013
Description : Rapid urbanization has led to a spurt in the number of squatter settlements. Though squatter settlements contribute to a city’s economy, these unorganized settlements produce negative externalities.The study seeks to measure the incidence and intensity of externalities, and willingness to pay to avoid the negative externalities by utilizing recently collecting data from primary sources in Kathmandu and Quito. Incidence and intensity of externalities are found higher in Kathmandu than Quito.
Location of the Poor: Neighborhood Versus Household Characteristics: The Case of Bogotá
Project : Urbanization
Author : Juliana Aguilar, Tito Yepes
Date : January 2013
Description : In Latin American cities there is a high correlation between the location chosen by poor households and their income level; however, it is difficult to identify to what extent they live there by choice – because it maximizes the returns to their efforts – or by restrictions that pull them to locations that make them poorer. We define the former case as unrestricted sorting in the urban economics context, while the latter is assumed to be the commonly used definition of segregation. The main hypothesis is that segregation exists when these returns vary across space while they should not. That is when households cannot profit equally across space even if they have comparable characteristics. Results show that segregation, as opposed to individual characteristics, explains one fourth to one third of the mean income difference between locations in Bogotá-Colombia.
Congestion Charge in São Paulo city: Likely Traffic Effects
Project : Urbanization
Author : Claudio Lucinda, Bruno Ledo, Leandro Meyer
Date : January 2013
Description : Aiming to reduce vehicles traffic in the downtown of Sao Paulo (Brazil), a circulation restriction policy known by "rodizio" (or "rotation") was implemented in 1998. Even though this policy is in place for more than a decade, the increase in the traffic gridlock since then is indicating more effective policies are required. Thus, the present report aims to estimate the welfare and traffic effects of a hypothetical congestion charge in São Paulo. In order to do so, this study explores microdata of the Origin-Destination survey carried out by São Paulo’s subway company.
 
Narrow Your Search